Tensile Testing of Steel Cords
Steel cord is formed by twisting multiple strands of steel wires together to form a cord structure. It is often used as a reinforcement material in conveyor belts and radial tires for passenger cars, buses, or heavy equipment vehicles. Compared to other traditional reinforcement materials like nylon, steel cords possess superior mechanical properties, such as higher tensile strength and modulus and better heat resistance. When used as a reinforcement material in radial tires, it offers high road stability, improved steering response, and longer tire service life. Since some of the key performance indicators of tires are dependent on the reinforcing steel cord, it is important for an engineer to understand the properties of the tire cord and how it functions in a tire.
We were approached by a leading manufacturer of steel cords to provide a gripping solution to test their products. The two test samples were similar, except that one had a thin wire that was wound around its entire length while the other did not.
For this test, we used the 5900 dual column test frame equipped with custom pneumatic wedge grips, 200 mm tall vee jaw faces, and special coated specimen holders. We ran the test at a test speed of 25 mm/min and the specimens showed good break without any specimen slippage. The pneumatic wedge grips are more compact compared to side acting hydraulic grips of similar capacity and the open front design facilitates quick loading of specimens. The specimen holder allows for easier specimen insertion as we can pre-assemble the flexible steel cord in the holder before inserting into the grips. Also, the tall jaw faces and specimen holder allow for better engagement between the specimen and specimen holder to prevent specimen slippage as the specimen is being pulled. Our Bluehill® 3 Testing Software was used to control the test and record the maximum load and strain at break.
5900 Universal Testing Systems are engineered for precision, built for durability, and offer the flexibility for changing requirements. They are designed with standard and optional features that increase testing efficiency and improve the testing experience for the operator. A wide range of models are available for testing capacities from < 100N up to 600kN.
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Bluehill® 3 is the newest version of Instron’s widely popular Bluehill Software, designed to meet the demands of any level of user from educators and test technicians to, quality engineers and laboratory managers. Compatible with 5900, 3300 and 5500 systems.
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The Bluehill 3 Metals Application Module includes a collection of pre-configured test methods and supporting documentation that cover a variety of internationally recognized industry standards; such as BS EN 10002-1, ISO 6892, ASTM E8, ASTM E21, ASTM E571, ASTM E646, and more.
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